In a monolithic application, all modules are developed in a single code base. Modules are divided as per their technical and functional requirement.
In a monolithic application, if we bring changes in any one of the modules then we need to redeploy the entire application with all modules. In the monolithic application, we can not perform efficient scalability with high data volume. CICD will become complex and time-consuming. Difficult to change technology or use multiple technologies because of their tight coupling or high dependency.
There is no exact definition of microservices, basically, microservices are an approach to break the large application into much small application so that we can perform scalability, monitoring, security and a lot of features out of the box. In microservices, multiple instances of the same service can be run at the same time.
Challenges with Microservices
1- Configuration Management
we need to manage configuration for each microservices and their instances with sync. for an example if there are any changes in configuration file then we need to update in all running instances of related services without downtime can use spring data buses to resolve this type of problem and we can use git to store configuration information and link this repo to the configuration server
2- Domain Design
This is a very difficult and important process of microservices to identify the deployable module. We need to understand functional requirement and their restrictions so that we cal divide the large system into multiple modules. A bad design can increase a lot of network calling between microservices.
3- Dynamic scale up and scale down(cloud-enable the feature)
If there is more load on an instance of a microservice then it should be easily brought up another instance of microservice or takedown of microservice if needed without any effect.
4- Naming Server
The naming service is used to provide URL of an active instance of running microservices to load balancer, it has two-part
(1) Service Registration
every microservice will register itself if their new instance will be created
used to get the list of name of all instances of required service
5- Visibility and Monitoring
A lot of services could be involved to process single request so tracing can be complex in microservices, we need to trace request across all service which has been executed to process this request. We can assign a request id to a request by using spring cloud sleuth and for monitoring, we can use any API gateway like Netflix and to centralize logging we can use Zipkin distributed tracing.
Advantage of microservice over monolithic application:
(1) dynamic scale up and scale down
(2) Relatively small, easy to understand and maintain
(3) scalability will be enhanced because we can scale single service separately.
(4) language-independent we can build any module in any language
(5) more reliable
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